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多重压力之下 家居市场客流和销售或成十年低谷

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 互联网+设计 3D设计开启家具智能制造时代 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

人民日报中央厨房:2019年完成全部立法程序,不是指房地产税立法

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Countrywide, month-on-month prices rose in 59 out of 70 cities last month – down from 62 – were unchanged in four and fell in eleven. Cities where prices fell from the previous month included Shenzhen (down 0.3 per cent), Hangzhou (down 0.4 per cent) and Xiamen (down 0.2 per cent).
几年前,有人发明了一辆会飞的自行车,叫做"Paravelo"。称一辆自行车会飞,并不是开玩笑,而是这辆自行车真的会飞(车头有一个巨大的降落伞)。它在陆地和空中的时速分别为25千米(15英里)和40千米(25英里),可飞至1200米(4000英尺)高空。最棒的地方是什么呢?那就是你不需要有飞行驾照。Paravelo号称世界上第一辆会飞的自行车,但我们必须指出它并不是第一辆会飞的自行车。
He was responsible for monitoring how many cupcake aficionados were allowed in the store at one time. Of course Magnolia Bakery isn't exactly complaining. The store proudly displays memorabilia from the show on the walls of their many locations. Today, Magnolia Bakery is known for their banana pudding, but they will always owe their initial success to Carrie Bradshaw and a red velvet cupcake.
James Bond is one of the few constants that movie lovers have in this crazy world of ours. We seem to know that, no matter what, a new Bond movie is always on the way.
n. 回想,记忆,纪念品
许多邦德电影主题曲听起来像酒吧表演歌曲。这不是抱怨,仅仅只是观察。无论出于何种原因,英国热门乐团杜兰杜兰发挥自身才能,为电影《雷霆杀机》创作了这首歌。曲调新颖,振奋人心。《雷霆杀机》是一首即使不依靠邦德电影也能成功的主打歌曲。歌曲轻松愉悦、活力四射,暗含一段令人沉醉的美好时光。(至于电影是否恰如歌曲讲述的那样尚有争议。)
泰勒·斯威夫特vs. 凯蒂·佩里

Bored with your day-to-day life? It’s time to go on an adventure and refresh yourself! The Antarctic is undoubtedly a good choice. Watching native penguins playing and seeing millions of seabirds flying across the sky is much more exciting than watching TV documentaries. Imagine how cool and fascinating it is to be in a world of majestic icebergs and unexplored mountain ranges. But remember, it’s a polar region, so prepare well before you set off. Insulated boots, warm coats, gloves, wool socks and hats are a must.
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但是,这一情况在两年前发生了变化,清华大学首次跻身前20名,2016年排名第18位。去年,北京大学也跻身前20名。
卢彦说,通州和其他地区也会建设高规格的医院供市中心地区居民看病,该举措可以缓解交通压力和城市拥堵。
BrandZ表示,这些品牌靠近国内市场,这帮助它们从全球品牌手中夺取市场份额,它们还在新地区赢得市场份额。

Footnotes

  • 去年12月份全国建材家居景气指数继续下滑
  • 10月份中国非制造业商务活动指数(非制造业PMI)为54.3,低于9月份55.4的近期峰值。其中,服务业商务活动指数为53.5,比9月份的峰值回落0.9个百分点。就连建筑业的形势似乎也有所恶化,商务活动指数为58.5,较9月份回落2.6个百分点。

在去年的调查中,绝大多数经济学家预期欧洲央行将发起全面量化宽松政策,而今年33个受访者中有几乎快一半的人认为欧洲央行将按兵不动。其他人表示,欧洲央行将扩大量化宽松或下调利率,尽管在那些预期会有更多宽松措施的人中,一部分人强调这家央行不太可能从根本上重塑其现有的政策回应。
它会自然生长成模子的形状。
虽然香港、悉尼和温哥华地处全球的不同角落,但是它们有着同一个特征。
flight
It was therapeutic for Warriors fans after enduring the agony of the worst collapse in Finals history the year before, but even then, the whole thing felt like "yup, this is what's supposed to happen." There was very little drama, very little debate, and in the end, the result everyone was sure of happened. That doesn't generate a lot of conversation or interest. It just kind of is what it is.
美国则在2016年下降为德国的第三大贸易伙伴。

苏州部分银行首贷上浮5% 有银行暂停房贷发放

References

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